Alternating current is the condition under which the motion of charge in a conductor varies cyclically.
A chemical that can release hydrogen ions when mixed with water. Sulfuric acid, H2SO, is used in lead acid batteries as the electrolyte.
A rechargeable battery or cell.
The chemicals in the battery produce and store electrons in the electrochemical cell to release them as electrical energy. The active substance reacts with the electrolyte upon discharge to provide valence electrons from the oxidation and reduction reactions occurring at the positive and negative electrodes.
AGM (Absorbent Glass Mat)
This is a term commonly applied to a sealed recombinant lead-acid battery using a non-woven separator composed almost entirely of glass fibers with effect of absorbing and retaining electrolytes between single-cell plates. AGM is essentially a glass mat in a cell that is compacted to ensure it absorbs the right amount of acid and holds pressure on the active material to prevent loss of contact between the AM and the plates' meshes.
Amp (Amp, A)
A unit of measurement for the flow of electrons in a circuit. 1 amp = 1 coulomb per second.
AmpereHour (Amp-hrs, Ah)
a unit of measure for a battery's ability to store electricity, obtained by multiplying the amperage in amperes by the discharge time in hours. (For example, a battery that delivers 5 amps for 20 hours delivers 5 amps x 20 hours = 100 amps.)
The negative electrode of the cell. The anode loses electrons during discharge (oxidation) and gains electrons during charging (reduction).
One or more electrochemical cells connected in series or parallel by inter-cell connections.
An electronic system that monitors batteries to maximize life and protect batteries from damage caused by factors such as over- and under-charging, imbalance of individual cells, and variation temperature change too high. The battery must also provide security and allow communication with other devices.
One or more short additional boost charges applied to the battery, usually during a duty cycle, to ensure that it will perform its application duty.
The Battery Council International (BCI) number identifies a battery by its physical and electrical characteristics. Dimensions (L x W x H), voltage, terminal arrangement polarity, terminal shape and type. This feature allows the buyer to determine the type of battery that is right for his vehicle.
The capacity of a battery is specified in the number of amps the battery will deliver at a particular discharge rate and temperature. The capacity of the battery is not a fixed value and decreases as the discharge rate increases. The capacity of a battery is affected by a number of factors such as the weight of the active substance, the density of the active substance, the adhesion of the active substance to the grid, the number, design and size of the plates. way, separator design, available electrolyte density and amount, grid alloy, ultimate limiting voltage, discharge rate, temperature, internal and external resistance, lifetime and history battery life.
The positive electrode of the cell. The cathode gains electrons during discharge (reduction) and loses electrons during charging (oxidation).
Short for an electrochemical cell. They are two different materials, usually the metal in an ion-conducting electrolyte. Different metals provide potential differences based on their position in the electrochemical panel. This difference produces an EMF or single cell voltage that determines the voltage of the battery. For nickel-cadmium it is 1.2 volts per cell and for lead acid it is 2 volts.
A battery's ability to accept and store energy based on given external parameters such as time, temperature, charge state, charge voltage, or battery history. It is usually related to the internal resistance and capacity of the battery.
Cold Cranking Amps (CCA)
This is the rating for a 12V Starter Lighting Ignition (SLI) battery to represent the ability of an engine to start in cold weather. It is defined as the number of amps that can be drawn from a new, fully charged battery at 180°C in 30 seconds and still maintain a voltage above 7.2 volts.
A device that provides electrical energy to the battery when the battery is discharged.
The ease with which electric current passes through a substance. In the equations, conductivity is denoted by a capital G. The standard unit of conductivity is the siemens (abbreviated S), formerly known as the mho, which is the reciprocal of resistance (ohm).
The box that holds the cell or battery components. It should be inert to the electrolyte used and be as impact resistant as possible.
Chemical or electrochemical reaction of a material and its medium, usually a metal, to produce a compound that is the product of the reaction. In metals it is caused by an oxidation reaction (loss of electrons) that produces a metal compound, e.g. Discharge of Pb to PbSO in the presence of sulfuric acid.
Any movement of charge carriers, such as subatomic charge carriers (e.g. negatively charged electrons, positively charged protons), ions (lost atoms or gain one or more electrons) or holes (the lack of such electrons can be considered as positive particles). The amperage in a conductor, where the charge carriers are electrons, is a unit of time that measures the amount of charge passing through any point in the wire in a unit of time.
In battery terms, a cycle is a complete sequence of discharge from a fully charged state plus a full recharge to a fully charged state.
The specified number of charge-discharge cycles the battery can perform until its discharge voltage reaches a specified minimum value. Parameters of discharge depth, discharge and recharge rates, voltage settings for charge and discharge plus temperature are often defined to describe the nature of the life test. The number of battery cycles to complete depends on many factors beyond the established test parameters. Typical elements are battery design, battery chemistry, and construction materials.
This is a discharge using current that brings the battery to a state where the voltage is the minimum recommended by the manufacturer for a particular discharge rate. For example, a lead-acid traction battery that will be discharged at 1.7 volts per cell over a period of 5 hours will be discharged 100% at a rate of C5 Battery
The battery is designed to provide the maximum number of discharge cycles to the minimum voltage recommended by the manufacturer for a particular discharge rate.
When a battery is connected to a load and supplying current, it is said to be discharging.
Electrochemical batteries require a conductive medium to transfer ions to allow charging and discharging of the positive and negative electrodes. In lead batteries, the electrolyte is sulfuric acid diluted with water. As a conductor providing water and sulfate salts for electrochemical reactions: PbO2 + Pb + 2H2SO4 = 2PbSO4 + 2H2O. In a lithium-ion battery, the electrolyte does not react with the electrodes, it only transfers Li+ ions from the cathode to the anode when charging and from the anode to the cathode when discharging
An Electronic device that assesses the condition of a battery by measuring resistance or impedance which can include ohmic resistance, capacitance, metallic and ionic conductivity. Often these devices use high frequency pulses and draw low currents.
Set of anode and cathode plates assembled by means of a separator between the plates.
The process of ensuring that all cells in a battery are in a fully charged state. The electrolyte in each cell should also have a uniform density and not be stratified. This is typically a process performed in installations connected to multiple batteries, where undercharging or frequent discharging would prevent individual batteries or cells from reaching the same state of charge. The charging current is usually low and the time can be up to several days.
In battery manufacturing, training is the process of charging a battery for the first time. Electrochemically, the formation process turns the lead oxide sludge on the positive grid into lead dioxide and the lead oxide sludge on the negative grid into metallic porous lead.
The name commonly applied to the electrolyte of a lead-acid battery that has been mixed with a chemical agent to give a non-permanent structure in liquid form. This can be done using a curing agent or by adding a fine silica powder. The purpose is to prevent electrolyte spillage and to allow the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen produced by the decomposition of water during charging (see VRLA batteries). Batteries made with enameled electrolyte are commonly referred to as GEL batteries.
A metal or metal alloy frame that supports the active panel material. It conducts the current generated by the active material to the battery terminals during discharge and to the terminals to the active material when charging.
The reference voltage of the circuit. In automotive use, the result of attaching a battery cable to the body or frame of the vehicle is used as a conduit to complete a circuit rather than direct wiring from a component. Today, more than 99% of automotive and LTV applications use the negative battery terminal as ground.
A battery cell with the correct number of separated anode and cathode plates will meet the battery's rated capacity.
Battery Council International (BCI) assigns numbers and letters to commonly used batteries. There are standards for maximum container sizes, terminal locations and types, and special container features.
Instrument used to estimate the concentration of acid or alkali in the electrolyte of a battery by measuring its specific gravity. Intercell Connection: A structure that connects adjacent cells in series, the anode of one cell to the cathode of the next, in the battery.
effective resistance of a circuit or of an electrical component for AC. It follows from the combined effects of the ohmic resistance and reactance and units similar to wars, that is to say ohms.
Internal resistance (IR)
A battery with a resistance, a capacitor and an inductor. Below is a representation of a total resistance of the battery is called model Randles Ro= Ohmic resistance of Battery metallics + Electrolyte + Separators RCT= Charge transfer resistance across the electrical double layer (EDL) Cdl=Capacitance of the double layer L=High frequency inductance of the metallic components Zw= Warburg impedance representing mass transport effects E=EMF of the circuit
including plate including a case lead metal and conductive materials based on lead oxide activity for positive and pure sponge lead to negative. The electrolyte is diluted sulfuric acid in the range from 30% to 40% by weight of acid.
A tool that draws current from a battery while measuring voltage. It determines the capacity to provide capacity of the battery
Low maintenance battery
The battery does not need frequent water replenishment to recharge the electrolyte. Usually 3-6 months between refills with controlled charging.
MCA (Marine Clamp Ampere)
MCA is an industry rating that determines the ability of marine batteries to deliver large amounts of amperage for a short period of time. Since marine batteries are generally never used at temperatures below freezing, marine amps cranks are measured at 32°F (0°C) as opposed to 0°F (18C) for crank amps starting. cold motion. The rating is the number of amps that can be drawn from a marine battery at 32°F for 30 seconds while maintaining a voltage of at least 7.2 volts for a 12 volt battery. The higher the MCA rating, the higher the starting capacity of the marine battery.
Batteries generally need no maintenance over their lifetime when the correct charging method is used.
The direction of electron flow describes electric potential. The battery's cathode provides electrons to reduce active sheet material during charging.
a unit for measuring resistance or impedance in an electrical circuit. Defined in SI units is the SI unit of resistance, carrying a current of one ampere when subjected to a voltage of one volt.
Relationship between amperage, voltage and resistance of a conductor in a circuit V = IxR (where V = volts, I = amps and R = ohms)
Open voltage circuit
The voltage difference of the battery when the terminal is open circuit, i.e. no load
We are the active components of the battery to form positive and negative electrodes. They include a stiff wire supporting active material. The driver can take many forms, for example. strip or sheet carrying the active material or mesh structure improves conductor / active material adhesion and reduces the overall weight of the battery. The plates positive or negative, depending on the polarity of the electrodes of the battery they are using.
The point at which the current reaches the negative part of the circuit in conventional physics. The point or pole of the battery has a relatively higher potential. In a battery, the anode provides the oxidation reaction by depleting electrons from the flowing active substance to the cathode to perform the reduction reaction.
A type of battery that can store and provide electrical energy but cannot be recharged electrically. Typical chemicals include: (i) carbonzinc (Leclanche cells), (ii) alkaline MnO2, (iii) lithiumMnO2, (iv) lithium sulfur dioxide, (v) lithium iron disulfide, (vi) lithiumthionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) ), (vii) silver oxide and (viii) zincair
Reserve capacity rating
The time in minutes that a new, fully charged SLI battery will deliver 25 amps at 27°C (80°F) and will maintain terminal voltage equal to or greater than 1.75 volts per cell. This rating represents how long the battery will continue to run essential accessories if the vehicle's alternator or alternator fails.
Resistance is the opposite of free current in a circuit or battery. Resistance converts electrical energy into heat and is in this respect similar to mechanical friction. When a voltage is applied to a metal in a circuit, it causes a net motion of electrons in the conduction band of that metal. The movement of electrons is hindered by the vibrations of the atoms in the metal lattice, so part of the electrical energy of the current is lost as heat, this is resistance. Since the oscillation of the lattice increases with increasing temperature, the resistance of metals also increases with increasing temperature. In a battery, the resistance is partly metallic due to the conductive substances, partly ionic due to the electrolyte and separator, and partly induced perhaps by the metal conductors in the battery creating a magnetic field.
Most recombinant batteries are sealed with a pressure relief valve to prevent gas leakage and to facilitate the recombination of oxygen and hydrogen to form water (see VRLA). There's also a maintenance free and stamped battery to prevent internal access, but no pressure vents to allow gas to escape freely. These are batteries with very low water loss that do not recombine but that will prolong their life guarantee for many years.
A battery that can store and supply electrical energy and can be recharged by passing direct current in the opposite direction to the discharge direction.
A porous separator between the positive and negative plates in a cell allowing the flow of ionic current to pass through. Separators are made from a variety of materials such as polyethylene, PVC, rubber, fiberglass, cellulose and a variety of polymers for different electrochemistry.
A low-resistance direct connection between the negative and positive of the power supply. In batteries a short circuit can be caused externally between two terminals, inside a short cell can be the result of contact between anode and negative plates caused by broken separators. defects or bridges between plates with loosely performing materials or even a manufacturing defect error.
Specific gravity (Sp. Gr. Or SG)
Specific gravity is a measure of the electrolyte concentration in a battery. This measurement is based on the density of the electrolyte to the density of water and is usually determined using a float or optical hydrometer.
Starter, Lighting and Ignition (SLI) battery
This is a rechargeable battery that provides electrical energy to the car to power the engine starter, lights, and ignition.
State of Charge (or the State of Health)
State of Charge (or State of Health): The amount of available low-rate electrical energy stored in the battery at any given time, expressed as a percentage of energy when fully charged and measured under the same conditions. discharge event. If the battery is fully charged, the state of charge is said to be 100%.
The electrolyte concentration is uneven due to the bottom-to-top density gradients of the cell. Usually found in lead-acid batteries recharged from deep discharge at constant voltage. It is the result of high density acid formation on the surface of the panel and immediately sinks to the bottom of the cell due to the low density of the discharge battery electrolyte. Unless the electrolyte is agitated by occasional gassing at higher charging voltages, stratification can severely reduce the life of a lead-acid battery by damaging the active material.
A condition or process that occurs in a lead-acid battery as a result of leaving the battery in a depleted or weakly charged state for an extended period of time. The discharge reaction produces lead sulfate in the anode and cathode plates and in the case of some lead acid batteries, especially those with lead-calcium grids, it can lead to grid passivation high. This, in severe cases, can prevent the battery from recharging normally, rendering it nearly useless.
The external electrical leads of the battery that the external circuit is connected to. Usually a battery has a top terminal (terminal) or a side terminal (front). Some batteries have both terminal types (double terminals).
Device that allows gas to escape from the battery while retaining the electrolyte in the housing. The igniter vents typically contain foam discs that reduce the possibility of internal explosions caused by external sparks. Air vents are both fixed and removable. For VRLA batteries, the vent contains a pressure relief valve
The SI unit of electromotive force, the potential difference that can carry 1 ampere of current compared to a 1 ohm resistor.
Actual difference in potential, i.e. voltage, when measured across a resistor or impedance. Its relationship with electric current is described in Ohm's law.
Electronic device for measuring voltage, digital or analog.
This is a description of a lead-acid battery with a one-way pressure relief valve that prevents air from entering the compartment but allows gas produced during charging to escape if the pressure inside the cell is too high. Typically, between 0.1 and 0.3 psi, the pressure needed to ensure that the oxygen and hydrogen produced during charging can recombine into water in the cell. AGM and gel are two types of VRLA batteries. These batteries have a fixed liquid electrolyte, this is achieved by using a glass mat (AGM) or a gelling agent (GEL).
The SI unit of power, equivalent to one joule per second, which corresponds to the rate of energy consumption in an electrical circuit where the potential difference is one volt and the amperage is one ampere.
1 Amp x 1 Volt
The unit of measure for electrical energy expressed as watts x hours. It is the energy that a battery produces not the capacity which is measured in ampere-hours. 1 watt hour = 1 Amp x 1 Volt x 1 hour